Main motions of the body:
Flexion and Extension – Adjusting angle between two parts
Flexion – When a bone that can be bent is bent (bending arm, lifting entire leg)
Extension – When a bone that can be bent is straightened (straightening arm, putting leg back down)
**This is only from forward/backward (up/down) direction.
Abduction and Adduction – Adjusting relation to mid-line of body
Abduction – When you move a joint out (lifting arm or leg out to the side)
Adduction – When you move a joint into the centre (bring arm or leg back in to the middle)
**This is the side to side direction movement.
Lateral Rotation and Medial Rotation – Rotating body parts
Lateral (external rotation) – When you rotate a joint outwards (twisting the heel so it turns outwards)
Medial (internal rotation) – When you rotate a joint in (twisting the heel so the toes point inwards)
**This is the twisting movement.
Elevation and Depression – Adjusting Elevation
**TO BE CONTINUED**
When you go into the foetal position, all the parts of your body that can be flexed and adducted are flexed and adducted. When you go into a pose such as a jumping star, everything that can be extended and abducted are extended and abducted; with one exception which is the SHOULDER BLADE: The shoulder blade becomes abducted in the foetal position and adducted in the star pose.
The Forearm Rotation: Supination and Pronation
Supination – The transition from pronated (palm facing down) to Supine (palm facing up)
Pronation – The transition from the palm being in an anterior-facing position (facing down) to a posterior-facing position (facing up)
There are 2 bones parallel to each other in our forearm: The ulna which is connected to our elbow and the radius which is connected from the lateral (outwards) side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. The ulna is connected to the upper-arm most firmly and the radius is connected to the hand most firmly. When the forearm rotates, the ulna stays still and the radius flops over the ulna, making an x over the ulna. When your 2 bones are parallel the hand is Supine. When it crosses over it becomes pronated. In between the 2 is demi-pointe.
*This is traditional supination & pronation where the ulna doesn’t move (think of it as the page turning movement, and the arm rotating from the pinky finger). If you think of the movement such as turning a key in a lock, your ulna does actually move (where the middle finger is the rotation point)
The Side-to-Side Movement of the Wrist: Ulnar Deviation and Radial Deviation
Ulnar Deviation – Moving your wrist towards the ulna (or pinky)
Radial Deviation – Moving your wrist towards the radius (or thumb)
Wrist has flexion and extension, but the side to side motion is a form of abduction/adduction – as this can be confusing for the wrist we use ulnar and radial deviation. You can deviate your wrist a lot towards the ulna (as there’s a gap) – but the wrist cannot deviate as much towards the radius.